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Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)

Overview

Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are a group of diverse bone marrow disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS is often referred to as a “bone marrow failure disorder”. 1

 

The bone marrow can be hypocellular or hypercellular. The ineffective hematopoiesis causes anemia (most common), neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or a combination of these, even to the point of marrow aplasia. Patients with significant, refractory, or chronic anemia eventually develop iron overload due to transfusions and/or increased iron absorption from the gut.2

 

The disordered cell production is also associated with morphologic cellular abnormalities in bone marrow and blood. Extramedullary hematopoiesis may occur, leading to hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Myelofibrosis may develop during the course of MDS. Classification is by blood and bone marrow findings and also by karyotype and mutation. The MDS clone tends to progress to acute myeloid leukemia.2

Symptoms

Symptoms are referable to the specific cell line most affected and may include fatigue, weakness, pallor (secondary to anemia), increased infections and fever (secondary to neutropenia), and increased bleeding and bruising (secondary to thrombocytopenia).2

Causes and Risk Factors

Myelodysplastic syndromes occur most often in people older than 50 years, particularly those older than 65 years. Men are more likely than women to be affected.3

 

The cause is usually not known. However, in some people, exposure of bone marrow to radiation therapy or certain types of chemotherapy drugs may play a role.3

FEATURED CASES

FEATURED CASE
Myelodysplastic Syndrome | Alinity hq
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FEATURED CASE
Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS RAEB) | CELL-DYN Ruby
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1. MDS Foundation. What is MDS ? https://www.mds-foundation.org/what-is-mds/
2. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS). https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/hematology-and-oncology/leukemias/myelodysplastic-syndrome-mds
3. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS). https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/blood-disorders/leukemias/myelodysplastic-syndrome-mds
Image source: https://wiki.clinicalflow.com/myelodysplastic-syndromes-mds

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