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Normocytic anemia

Overview

Normocytic anemias may be thought of as representing any of the following: a decreased production of normal-sized red blood cells (e.g., anemia of chronic disease, aplastic anemia); an increased destruction or loss of red blood cells (e.g., hemolysis, posthemorrhagic anemia); an uncompensated increase in plasma volume (e.g., pregnancy, fluid overload); or a mixture of conditions producing microcytic and macrocytic anemias.1

 

Normocytic anemia is the most frequently encountered type of anemia. Anemia of chronic disease, the most common normocytic anemia.1

 

It should be noted that in the initial stage, nearly all anemias are normocytic.1

Types of Normocytic Anemias

1. Hemolytic anemia (reticulocyte count > 2%)2

 

  • Hemoglobinopathies (Sickle cell anemia, HbC disease)
  • Enzyme deficiencies (Pyruvate kinase deficiency, G6PD deficiency
  • Membrane defects (Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, Hereditary spherocytosis)
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
  • Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
  • Macroangiopathic hemolytic anemia2

 

2. Nonhemolytic (reticulocyte count < 2%)2

 

  • Aplastic anemia
  • Anemia of chronic kidney disease
  • Iron deficiency anemia (early phase)
  • Anemia of chronic disease (early phase)2
Symptoms

Most patients with anemia are asymptomatic.1

Causes and risk factors

It can be caused by a variety of systemic disorders and diseases, as well as primary hematologic disorders.1 Although the elderly are more prone to develop anemia, older age is not of itself a cause of the condition.3

 

FEATURED CASES

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Lysis Resistant RBC | Alinity hq
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Nucleated Red Blood Cells And Immature Granulocytes (IG) | Alinity hq
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Red Blood Cell Fragments (Schistocytes) | Alinity hq
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Auto-immune Hemolytic Anemia | CELL-DYN Ruby
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Granulocytosis | CELL-DYN Ruby
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Immature Granulocytes (IG) | CELL-DYN Ruby
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Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS RAEB) | CELL-DYN Ruby
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Reticulocytes Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia | CELL-DYN Ruby
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Sickle Cell Disease | Alinity hq
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1. Brill JR, Baumgardner DJ. Normocytic Anemia. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Nov 15;62(10):2255-2263.
2. https://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Anemia
3. Izaks GJ, Westendorp RG, Knook DL. The definition of anemia in older persons. JAMA. 1999;281:1714–7.
Image source: https://imagebank.hematology.org/image/3710/normochromic-normocytic-anemia--1

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